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ѕрактическа€ пульмонологи€ (ранее Ц "јтмосфера. ѕульмонологи€ и аллергологи€"): ISSN 2409-756X (Online), ISSN 2409-6636 (Print)
2004 / N 1

јнтимикробна€ активность левофлоксацина (—писок литературы)
—.ƒ. ћитрохин

ѕродолжение списка литературы.
16. Sahm D. F. , Critchley I. A., Kelly L. J. et al. Evaluation of current activities of fluoroquinolones against gram-negative bacilli using centralized in vitro testing and electronic surveillance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001. V. 45. P. 267Ц74.
17. Barry A. L., Fuchs P. C., Brown S. D. In vitro activities of three nonfluorinated quinolones against representative bacterial isolates. Ibid. 1923Ц1927.
18. Drusano G. L., Johnson D., Rosen M. Pharmacodynamics of fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent in a neutropenic rat model of Pseudomonas sepsis. Ibid. 1993. V. 37. P. 483Ц490.
19. Fox K. K., Knapp J. S., Holmess K. K. Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States, 1988Ц1994: the emergence of decreased susceptibility to the fluoroquinolones. J Infect Dis 1997. V. 175. P. 1396Ц1403.
20. Fukuda H., Hosaka M., Iyobe S. et al. nfxC-type quinolones resistance in a clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1995. V. 39. P. 790Ц792.
21. Goni H., Jiang Z-D., Adachi J. A. et al. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial enteropathogens causing travelers diarrhea in four geographic regions. Ibid. 2001. V. 45. P. 210Ц216.
22. Oethinger M., Kern W. V., Jellen-Ritter A. S. et al. Ineffectiveness of topoisomerase mutations in mediating clinically significant fluoroquinolone resistance in Esherichia coli in the absence of the acrAB efflux pump. Ibid. 2000. V. 44. P. 10Ц13.
23. Une T, Fujimoto T, Sato K, Osada Y. Ibid. 1988. V. 32. P. 1336Ц1340.
24. Vila J., Vargas M., Ruiz J. et al. Quinolone resistance in enterotoxigenic Esherichia coli causing diarrhea in travelers to India in comparison with other geographical areas. Ibid. 2000. V. 44. P. 1731Ц1733.
25. Yoshida H., Bogahi M., Nakamura M. et al. Quinolone resistance-determining region in the DNA gyrase gyrA gene of Esherichia coli. Ibid. 1990. V. 34. P. 1271Ц1272.
26. Yoshida H., Muratani T., Iyobe S. et al. Mechanisms of high-level resistance to quinolones in urinary tract isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ibid. 1994. V. 38. P. 1466Ц1469.
27. Waites K., Rand K., Jenkins S. et al. Multicenter in vitro comparative study of fluoroquinolones after four years of widespread clinical use. Diagn. Microbiol Infect 1994. V. 3. P. 181Ц189.
28. Bonfiglo G., Cascone C., Azzarelli C. et al. Levofloxacin in vitro activity and time-kill evaluation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia clinical isolates. J Antimicrob Chemother 2000. V. 45. P. 115Ц117.
29. Denton M., Kerr K. G. Microbial and clinical aspects of infection associated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Clin Microbiol Rev 1998. V. 11. P. 57Ц80.
30. Lecso-Bornet M., Pierre J., Sarkis-Karam P. et al. Susceptibility of Xantomonas maltophilia to six quinolones and study of outer membrane proteins in resistant mutants selected in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1992. V. 36. P. 669Ц671.
31. Lomovskaya O., Warren M. S., Lee A. et al. Identification and characterization of inhibitors of multidrug resistance efflux pumps in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ibid. 2001. V. 45. P. 105Ц106.
32. Nakano M., Deguchi I., Kawamura J. et al. Mutations in the gyrA and parC genes in fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ibid. 1997. V. 41. P. 2289Ц2291.
33. Poole K., Krebes K., Mc Nally C. et al. Multiple antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: evidence for involvement of an efflux operon. J Bacteriol 1993. V. 175. P. 7363Ц7372.
34. Renau T., Leger R., Flamme E. et al. Inhibitors of efflux pumps in Pseudomonas aeruginosa potentiate the activity of the fluoroquinolone antibacterial levofloxacin. J Med Chem 1999. V. 42. P. 4928Ц4931.
35. Schmitz F. J., Sadurski R., Verhoef J. et al. Typing of 154 clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and determination of the in vitro susceptibilities of these strains to 28 antibiotics. J Antimicrob Chemother 2000. V. 45. P. 921Ц924.
36. Tornsberry C. Susceptibility of clinical bacterial isolates to ciprofloxacin in the United States. Infection 1994. V. 22. Suppl. 2. P. 380Ц389.
37. Tornsberry C., Sahm D. F. Antimicrobial resistance in respiratory tract pathogenes: results of international surveillance study. J Chemother 1999. V. 46. Suppl. 1. P. 15Ц23.
38. Pestova E., Millichap J., Noskin G., et al. Intracellular targets of moxifloxacin: a comparison with other fluoroquinolones. J Antimicrob Chemother 2000. V. 45. P. 583Ц590.
39. Blondean J. M., Zhoo X., Hanson G. et al. Mutant prevention concentrations of fluoroquinolones for clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001. V. 45. P. 589Ц592.
40. Chen D. K., Mc Geer A., De Azavedo J. C. et al. Decreased susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae to fluoroquinolones in Canada. New Engl J Med 1999. V. 341. P. 233Ц239.
41. Doern G. V., Brueggemann A. B., Holley H. P. et al. Antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from outpatients in the United States during the winter months of 1994 to 1995: results for a 30- center national surveillance study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1996. V. 40. P. 1208Ц1213.
42. Doern G. V., Pfaller M. A., Kugler K. et al. Prevalense of antimicrobial resistance among respiratory tract isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in North America. P. 1997 results from the Sentry antimicrobial surveillance program. Clin Infect Dis 1998. V. 27. P. 764Ц770.
43. Doern G. V., Brueggemann A. B., Holley H. P. et al. Antimicrobial resistance with Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States 1997-1998. Emerg Infect Dis 1999. V. 5. P. 757Ц765.
44. Fukuda H., Hiramatsu K. Primary target of fluoroquinolones in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999. V. 43. P. 410Ц412.
45. Gootz T., Zaniewski R., Haskel S. et al. Activity of the new fluoroquinolone trovafloxacin (CP-99,219) against DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV mutans of Streptococcus pneumoniae selected in vitro. Ibid. 1996. V. 40. P. 2691Ц697.
46. Gootz T., Zaniewski R., Haskel S. Activities of trovafloxacin compared with those of other fluoroquinolones against purified topoisomerases and grlA mutants of Staphylococcus aureus. Ibid. 1999. V. 43. P. 1845Ц1855.
47. Ho P. L., Que T., Tsang D. N-E. et al. Emergence of fluoroquinolones resistance among multiply resistant strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Hong Kong. Ibid. 1310Ц1313.
48. Hoellman D. B., Kelly L. M., Jacobs M. R. et al. Comparative antianaerobic activity of BMS 284756. Ibid. 2001. V. 45. P. 589Ц592.
49. Ito H., Yoshida H., Bogaki-Shonai M. et al. Quinolone resistance mutations in the DNA gyrase gyrA and gyrB genes of Staphylococcus aureus. Ibid. 1994. V. 38. P. 2014Ц023.
50. Jones M. E., Sahm D. F., Martin N. et al. Prevalence of gyrA , gyrB, parC and parE mutations in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae with decreased susceptibilities to different fluoroquinolones and originating from worldwide surveillance studies during the 1997Ц1998 respiratory season. Ibid. 2000. V. 44. P. 462Ц466.
51. Khurshid M. A., Chou T, Carey R et al. Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. Illinois,1999. VVWP 2000. V. 48. P. 1165Ц1167.
52. Linde M-S., Schmidt M., Fuchs E. In vitro activities of six quinolones and mechanisms of resistance in Staphyloccocus aureus and coagulase-negative staphyloccocus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001. V. 45. P. 1553Ц1557.
53. Munoz-Bellido J. L., Alonso-Manzanares M. A., Yague- Guirao G. In vitro activities of 13 fluoroquinolones against Staphyloccocus aureus isolates with characterized mutations in gyrA, gyrB, grlA and norA and against wild-type isolates. Ibid. 1999. V. 43. P. 966Ц968.
54. Sahm D. F., Karlowsky S. A., Kelly L. J. et al. Need for annual surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States. P. 2-year longitudinal analysis. Ibid. 2001. V. 45. P. 1037Ц1042.
55. Schmitz F. J., Jones M. E., Hofmann B. et al. Characterization of gyrA, gyrB, grlA and grlB mutations in 116 unrelated isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and effects of mutations on ciprofloxacin MIC. Ibid. 1998. V. 42. P. 1249Ц1252.
56. Takanata M., Yonezawa M., Natsubara N. et al. Antibacterial activity of quinolones against coagulase-negative staphylococci and the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyrA genes from six species. J Antimicrob Chemother 1997. V. 40. P. 384Ц 386.
57. Tanaka M., Onodera Y., Uchida K. et al. Inhibitory activities of quinolones against DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV purified from Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1997. V. 41. P. 2362Ц2366.
58. Blondean J. A review of clinical trials with fluroquinolones with an emphasis on new agents. Expert Opin. Invest Drugs 2000. V. 59. P. 383Ц413.
59. King A., May J., French G. et al. Comparative in vitro activity of gemifloxacin. J Antimicrob Chemother 2000. V. 45. P. Suppl. 1. P. 1Ц12.
60. Wise R., Andews J. M. The in vitro activity and tentative breakpoint of gemifloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone. Ibid. 1999. V. 44. P. 679Ц688.
61. Bildenbach D. J., Jones R. N., Marshall S. A. et al. Antimicrobial activity of gatifloxacin against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Burkholderia species. Drugs 1999. V. 58. P. Suppl. 2. P. 180Ц181.
62. Weigel L. M., Steward C. D., Tenover F. C. gyrA mutations associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in eight species of Enterobacteriaceae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1998. V. 42. P. 2661Ц2667.
63. Cohn M. L., Waites K. B. Antimicrobial activities of gatifloxacin against nosocomial isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia measured by MIC and time-kill studies. Ibid. 2001. V. 45. P. 2126Ц2128.
  

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